Monday, December 24, 2007
The 6.2 magnitude tremor struck 160 miles northeast of the capital, Dili, in Indonesia's Banda Sea at a depth of 6 miles, the U.S. Geological Survey said. Residents in the capital did not feel any shaking and there were no immediate reports of damage or injuries.
Indonesia's Meteorological and Geophysics agency issued a tsunami alert, saying the quake had been powerful enough to generate giant waves. The warning was later retracted.
East Timor, a former Portuguese colony that became Asia's youngest country after breaking from Indonesia in 1999, sits along a series of faultlines and volcanos known as the Pacific Ring of Fire.
In December 2004, a massive earthquake struck off Indonesia's Sumatra and triggered a tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people in a dozen countries, including 160,000 people in Indonesia's westernmost province of Aceh.
Saturday, December 22, 2007
Coastal Douglas fir woodland in northwest Oregon.The scientific study of forest species and their interaction with the environment is referred to as forest ecology, while the management of forests is often referred to as forestry. Forest management has changed considerably over the last few centuries, with rapid changes from the 1980s onwards culminating in a practice now referred to as sustainable forest management. Forest ecologists concentrate on forest patterns and processes, usually with the aim of elucidating cause and effect relationships. Foresters who practice sustainable forest management focus on the integration of ecological, social and economic values, often in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders.
Anthropogenic factors that can affect forests include logging, human-caused forest fires, acid rain, and introduced species, among other things. There are also many natural factors that can also cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc. In 1997, the World Resources Institute recorded that only 20% of the world's original forests remained in large intact tracts of undisturbed forest . More than 75% of these intact forests lie in three countries - the Boreal forests of Russia and Canada and the rainforest of Brazil. In 2006 this information on intact forests was updated using latest available satellite imagery.
Canada has about 4,020,000 km² of forest land. More than 90% of forest land is publicly owned and about 50% of the total forest area is allocated for harvesting. These allocated areas are managed using the principles of sustainable forest management, which includes extensive consultation with local stakeholders. About eight percent of Canada’s forest is legally protected from resource development (Global Forest Watch Canada)(Natural Resources Canada). Much more forest land — about 40 percent of the total forest land base — is subject to varying degrees of protection through processes such as integrated land-use planning or defined management areas such as certified forests (Natural Resources Canada). By December 2006, over 1,237,000 square kilometres of forest land in Canada (about half the global total) had been certified as being sustainably managed (Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition). Clearcutting is usually the harvest method of choice and companies are required by law to ensure that harvested areas are adequately regenerated. Most Canadian provinces have regulations limiting the size of clearcuts, although some older clearcuts can range upwards of 110 km² (20,000 acres) in size which were cut over several years.
In the United States, most forests have historically been affected by humans to some degree, though in recent years improved forestry practices has helped regulate or moderate large scale or severe impacts. However the United States Forest Service estimates that every year about 6,000 km² (1.5 million acres) of the nation’s 3,000,000 km² (750 million acres) of forest land is lost to urban sprawl and development. It is expected that the South alone will lose 80,000 to 100,000 km² (20 to 25 million acres) to development. However, in many areas of the United States, the area of forest is stable or increasing, particularly in many northern states.
Globally two broad types of forests can be identified: natural and anthropogenic.
Natural forests contain mainly natural patterns of biodiversity in established seral patterns, and they contain mainly species native to the region and habitat. The natural formations and processes have not been affected by humans with a frequency or intensity to change the natural structure and components of the habitat.
Anthropogenic forests have been created by humans or sufficiently affected by humans to change or remove natural seral patterns. They often contain significant elements of species which were originally from other regions or habitats.
Monday, December 17, 2007
The Feb. 13 apology to the so-called "stolen generations" of Aborigines will be the first item of business for the new Parliament, Indigenous Affairs Minister Jenny Macklin said. Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, whose Labor Party won November elections, had promised to push for an apology, an issue that has divided Australians for a decade,
"The apology will be made on behalf of the Australian government and does not attribute guilt to the current generation of Australian people," Macklin said in a statement.
Rudd has refused demands from some Aboriginal leaders to pay compensation for the suffering of broken families. Activist Michael Mansell, who is legal director of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Center, has urged the government to set up an $882 million compensation fund.
Macklin did not mention compensation Wednesday. But she said she sought broad input on the wording of the apology, which she hoped would signal the beginning of a new relationship between Australia and its original inhabitants, who number about 450,000 among a population of 21 million. Aborigines are the poorest ethnic group in Australia and are most likely to be jailed, unemployed and illiterate.
"Once we establish this respect, the government can work with indigenous communities to improve services aimed at closing the 17-year life expectancy gap between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians," she said.
Christine King of the Stolen Generations Alliance, one of the key indigenous groups the government has consulted in crafting the apology, said she was "overwhelmed" that a date had finally been set.
"Older people thought they would never live to see this day," King said through tears. "It's very emotional for me and it's very important."
Australia has had a decade-long debate about how best to acknowledge Aborigines who were affected by a string of 20th century policies that separated mixed-blood Aboriginal children from their families — the cohort frequently referred to as Australia's stolen generation.
From 1910 until the 1970s, around 100,000 mostly mixed-blood Aboriginal children were taken from their parents under state and federal laws based on a premise that Aborigines were a doomed race and saving the children was a humane alternative.
A national inquiry in 1997 found that many children taken from their families suffered long-term psychological effects stemming from the loss of family and culture.
The inquiry recommended that state and federal authorities apologize and compensate those removed from their families. But then-Prime Minister John Howard steadfastly refused to do either, saying his government should not be held responsible for the policies of former officials.
Barbara Livesey, chief executive of Reconciliation Australia, a government-commissioned agency tasked with bringing black and white Australians together, said the apology on the day after Parliament resumes for the first time since the November elections would be historic.
"It's a moment that all Australians should feel incredibly proud of, that we're recognizing the mistakes of the past," she said.
But opposition leader Brendan Nelson, whose conservative Liberal Party was thrown out of office in November after almost 12 years in power, questioned whether the apology deserved to be the new government's first item of business.
Monday, December 10, 2007
Just the kind of bug you want hanging around your ankle
(Globe file photo)
Helicopters are flitting around today over Bellingham, Medfield, and Millis. Why all the annoying buzzing? To reduce the amount of those other buzzing, biting annoyances -- mosquitoes.
The drenching rains earlier this month have spawned a bumper crop of mosquitoes, including aggressive breeds not usually encountered until summer, the director of the Norfolk County Mosquito Control Project said today.
As a result, the Norfolk mosquito control district has expanded its annual springtime spraying, said district director John Smith. Two helicopters took to the air today, dropping pellets containing a widely used pesticide that is favored by mosquito-control specialists because it kills bugs before they reach adulthood. Public health specialists believe the pesticide does not present a significant threat to the environment.
The helicopters this morning targeted Norwood, Canton, and Bellingham, and this afternoon moved to Medfield and Millis. On Wednesday, the helicopters are expected to shift to central Norfolk County and, on Thursday, Dedham, Quincy, and Weymouth.
The springtime treatments are usually restricted to wetlands, but because of the recent soaking rains they have been expanded to the flood plain of the Charles and Neponset rivers, Smith said. The current spraying is largely intended to limit the emergence of nuisance mosquitoes, as opposed to treatments later in the year, which are aimed at limiting the spread of diseases spread by mosquitoes, such as West Nile virus and Eastern equine encephalitis.
Even with about 12,000 acres treated, Smith said he still expects some mosquitoes to escape -- including the more aggressive summer breeds.
Thursday, December 6, 2007
Color blindness is not the swapping of colors in the observer's eyes, just the resolution. It is analogous to myopia: is that fuzzy blob one long bus or two short ones parked end to end? Grass is never red, and stop signs are never green. The color impaired do not learn to call red "green" and vice versa. However, dichromats often confuse red and green items. For example, they may find it difficult to distinguish a Braeburn from a Granny Smith and in some cases, the red and green of a traffic light without other clues (e.g., shape or location). This is demonstrated in this simulation of the two types of apple as viewed by a trichromat or by a dichroma.
Anomalous Trichromats are often able to readily spot camouflage clothing, netting, and paint that has been designed for individuals with color-normal vision. For the same reasons a color-blind painter might use too much blue to paint a green foliage landscape, a similarly color-blind artillery spotter would perceive too little blue dye used in camouflage created to match the same landscape.
Traffic light colors are confusing to some dichromats: there is insufficient apparent difference between the red and amber and sodium street lamps and the green can be confused with a grubby white lamp. This is a risk factor on a high-speed undulating road where angular cues can't be used. British Rail color lamp signals use more easily identifiable colors: the red is really blood red, the amber is quite yellow and the green is a bluish color.
However dichromats tend to learn to see texture and shape. This lets them see through some camouflage patterns. In the apple example, above, they will see the clear difference because the surface pattern is different.
Color blindness almost never means complete monochromatism. In almost all cases, color blind people retain blue-yellow discrimination, and most color blind individuals are anomalous trichromats rather than complete dichromats. In practice this means that they often retain a limited discrimination along the red-green axis of color space although their ability to separate colors in this dimension is severely reduced.
It should also be noted that even though some people are unable to see some or maybe even any of the numbers in (e.g. red-green) color blindness test, the person might still be able to tell the difference between the colors in his or her everyday life.
Saturday, December 1, 2007
Rhinos have been driven to near extinction – the world rhino population has fallen by more than 90 percent in the past 30 years. Whereas 30 species of rhino once roamed the planet, only five remain today, and all of them are endangered. In Africa, only the black rhinoceros and white rhinoceros still exist.
What’s the cause of the rhino’s precipitous decline? Not the habitat loss or food supply disruption that affects so many African animals. Rather, it is man’s relentless pursuit of the animal’s unique horn that poses the single most dangerous threat to rhinos today.
Saving the Rhino
AWF has been at the forefront of rhino conservation for decades. In the 1970s, when demand for rhino horn skyrocketed, AWF recognized this alarming development and joined with other organizations to launch conservation measures.
Despite these efforts, rhinos stood at the brink of extinction by the mid-1980s. AWF and other conservationists agreed that the only way to ensure their survival was to secure them in protected areas such as sanctuaries. Today, thanks to these rhino areas and the work of conservationists around the world, African rhinos are recovering from threat of extinction. Though populations remain small, the outlook for rhinos is good. With the support of a host of governments, communities, scientists, and conservation organizations, AWF continues to catalyze efforts to save the rhino.
Friday, November 30, 2007
Tuesday, November 20, 2007
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. - The space station's two American astronauts went out on a riskier-than-usual spacewalk Wednesday and fixed one of two equipment failures that crippled their power system and threatened to stall construction at the orbiting outpost.
Commander Peggy Whitson and Daniel Tani replaced a motor needed to tilt a solar wing toward the sun, taking extra precautions to avoid being shocked. Once the new motor was hooked up, electricity began flowing through the unit and provided a power boost.
"Yee-haw! Excellent," Whitson said.
Flight controllers tested the motor via ground commands, and everything checked out so well that NASA declared the operation a success. "Awesome work you guys," Mission Control radioed up.
The tilting mechanism stopped working in early December, exacerbating a power problem that arose three months earlier when a solar wing rotating joint jammed up and had to be shut down.
Wednesday's seven-hour spacewalk was especially hazardous because of the risk of electrical shock. For safety, Whitson and Tani waited until the international space station was on the dark side of Earth, then carefully undid fasteners and disconnected cables, and pulled out the old electric motor.
A few minutes later, the spacewalkers popped in the new 200-pound-plus motor, a spare that had been stored on board. "We're all breathing down here. Thanks a lot," Mission Control said.
Whitson and Tani performed virtually the entire job in the darkness of night, pausing during the daytime swings around Earth when 160 volts of electricity would course through the cables. As an added precaution, the astronauts did not shine any nonessential lights on the solar wing to prevent power generation.
Because the motor serves as the structural backbone for the solar wing, the spacewalkers had to make sure the wing didn't come off and fly away.
Earlier in the morning, the spacewalk almost ended up being aborted when a radio-relay problem prevented Whitson and Tani from hearing Mission Control. Flight controllers restored communication through a backup channel within 20 minutes.
With their motor work finished, the spacewalkers moved over to the damaged solar rotary joint for yet another inspection.
NASA is uncertain what to do about the clogged joint, which is supposed to continuously rotate 360 degrees to keep the solar wings pointing toward the sun. As many as four spacewalks will be required later this year to remove metal shavings from the joint and get it working again. Shuttle flights could be delayed this fall if the joint isn't fixed.
It was the first spacewalk for Tani since his 90-year-old mother was killed in a car accident outside Chicago just before Christmas. Flight director Holly Ridings said Tani has been coping extremely well, and that his work has not been affected.
Tani was supposed to return to Earth in December aboard Atlantis, but his trip home was delayed because of problems with the fuel gauges in the shuttle's external tank. NASA is now aiming for a Feb. 7 liftoff after replacing a bad connector at the bottom of the tank.
Top managers gathered Wednesday to officially set a launch date and evaluate the latest shuttle problem, a kinked radiator hose in the payload bay.
The shuttle will carry up Tani's replacement, a French astronaut, as well as the European science lab, Columbus.
Wednesday's spacewalk fell on the eve of the 50th anniversary of the launch of America's first satellite, Explorer 1. The very next day, Friday, will mark the fifth anniversary of the Columbia disaster.
Monday, November 19, 2007
2. If you fart consistently for 6 years and 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb.
3. A pig's orgasm lasts for 30 minutes.
4. Banging your head against a wall uses 150 calories an hour.
5. Humans and dolphins are the only species that have sex for pleasure.
6. The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue.
7. Right-handed people live, on average, nine years longer than left-handed people do. 8. The ant can lift 50 times its own weight, can pull 30 times its own weight and always falls over on its right side when intoxicated.
9. Polar bears are left handed.
10. The catfish has over 27,000 taste buds.
Sunday, November 18, 2007
In the 1998 World Cup final, Zidane attracted international attention with two headed goals against Brazil that won his country's first ever FIFA World Cup title. He contributed to his teams' victories in the Euro 2000, the UEFA Champions League, and domestic championships in Italy and Spain.
Zidane was elected FIFA World Player of the Year a record-equalling three times (1998, 2000, 2003), finished in the top-three an additional three times (1997, 2002, 2006), and was named European Footballer of the Year in 1998. The world-record fee of € 66 million for his transfer to Real Madrid in 2001 remains unparalleled. In 2004, he topped the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll on Best European football player of the past 50 years, and was included in the FIFA 100, Pelé's list of the 125 greatest living footballers. At the 2006 FIFA World Cup, he played an inspiring role in his team's advancement to the final and was named Most Outstanding Player of the tournament, receiving the Golden Ball, although he was sent off in the final game.
As announced on 25 April 2006,2 Zidane retired from football after the 2006 World Cup Final on 9 July 2006.
TriviaWorld and Europe Champion with French Soccer Team in July 1998 and July 2000
National hero in France
Has four sons: Enzo (b. 1994), Luca (b. 1998), Théo (b. 18 May 2002) and Elyas (b. 26 December 2005).
Has his look-alike puppet in the French show "Guignols de l'info, Les" (1988).
Best player in the world according to FIFA in 1998, 2000 and 2003. He also won the Golden Ball in 1998.
World Champion with France (1998), European Champion with France (2000). Winner of the Intercontinental Cup (1996, 2002), the UEFA Champions League (2002), and the UEFA Super Cup (1996, 2002).
Wife Veronique is a Spanish ex-dancer.
Comes from an Algerian family, born in a poor district of the Mediterranean port of Marseille. He is involved in charity work in France and North Africa.
Joined Real Madrid after his record $U66 million transfer from Juventus in 2001.
Had hinted he would hang up his boots when his current contract ended at the close of the 2004/5 season, but he will remain at Real Madrid for an extra two years after reaching an agreement to extend his contract until June 2007. [19 February 2004]
Is the captain of the French soccer team
French singer Pascal Obispo dedicated him his song "Zinedine".
Is of Berber-Algerian (Kabiyle) descent.
Apart from playing for Italian club Juventus July 1996 - July 2001 and Spanish club Real Madrid July 2001 - present, he also played for French clubs AS Cannes 1988-1992 and Bordeaux 1992-1996.
On 26 April 2006 he officially announced his decision to retire after the World Cup in Germany. He will continue to live in Spain with his family.
Son Elyaz, born December 26, 2005.
Son Enzo, born March 24, 1995.
Son Luca, born May 13, 1998.
Son Théo, born May 18, 2002.
He received a red card and was sent off for head-butting Marco Materazzi in extra time of the 2006 FIFA world cup final against Italy, the game in which he announced would be his last before retirement. He claimed 'The Matrix' made disrespectful comments about his mother.
Was awarded the Golden Ball for being voted best player of the 2006 World Cup (10 July 2006).
Personal Quotes"I have won many awards and I am very happy about this, but I am not the best player in the world."
"It doesn't matter how many times you win an award, it is always very special."
Monday, November 5, 2007
One hand on steering wheel,one hand on horn
One hand on steering wheel,one hand on newspaper, foot solidly on accelerator...
Both hands on steering wheel, eyes shut, both feet on brake, quivering in terror
- New York
Both hands in air, gesturing, both feet on accelerator, head turned to talk to someone in back seat
One hand on horn,
one hand on holding gear,
one ear listening to loud music,
one ear on cell phone,
one foot on accelerator,
one foot on clutch,
nothing on brake,
eyes on females in the next car,
- Welcome to INDIA!!
Friday, November 2, 2007
The Portuguese boss was approached by Los Ché before they appointed their current coach, but he turned down the offer as he hoped for a bigger club to make their move.
Koeman joined Valencia in early November and has won just one league game and caused major upheaval at the club that has now seen the fans turn against him.
According to The Sun, Mourinho has now been approached and if he accepts the role then the Dutchman will be sacked this week in order to make way.
While the former Chelsea boss was rumoured to fancy a return to English football and was linked to both Liverpool and Newcastle United, he has yet to say anything publicly.
Valencia's offer to help rescue them this season may be tempting, but Mourinho is believed to be holding out for one of Europe's major clubs to offer him a post.
AC Milan are the favourites with Carlo Ancelotti expected to step down in the summer, so Valencia may only be able to keep the outspoken trainer until then.
In Spain, Valencia have publicly given Koeman their backing, but defeat in the Copa del Rey on Wednesday evening against Atlético de Madrid would see the pressure increase dramatically.
Tuesday, October 30, 2007
Tuesday, October 23, 2007
Wednesday, October 17, 2007
The noni plant is a small evergreen shrub or tree that grows from three to six metres. The noni plant has a straight trunk, large elliptical leaves, white tubular flowers and ovoid yellow fruits of up to 12 cm in diameter. The ripe noni fruit has a not so pleasant taste and odour.
All parts of the noni plant can be used: roots, stems, bark, leaves, and flowers and of course the fruits.
Octoanoic acid, Terpenoids, Anthraquinones, Caproic acid, Urso
Noni has been reported to have a range of health benefits for colds, cancer, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, pain, skin infection, high blood pressure, mental depression, atherosclerosis and arthritis. The noni contain the antibacterial compounds in the fruits (acubin, L-asperuloside and alizarin) and roots (anthrauinones). Noni conatins scopoletin which inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli, which is responsible for intestinal infections, and Heliobacter pylori, which causes ulcers.Damnacanthal, which is found in the noni roots, inhibits the tyrosine kinase and gives noni antitumor activity.
The medicinal properties of Noni were discovered, more than 2000 years ago, by the Polynesians, who imported the fruit from Southeast Asia. Today the noni fruits is eaten in many parts of the world, mainly in the Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia and Australia. Those who recovered from illness after eating the noni fruit called it ?the fruit of God?.In 2003, noni juice was approved by the European Commission as a novel food and was allowed to be commercialized in the EU. A novel food is food or a food ingredient that was not used to a significant degree in the EU before May 15, 1997. Before any new food product can be introduced on the European market it must be rigorously assessed for safety.
Friday, September 28, 2007
Thursday, September 27, 2007
Treasure Island is an adventure novel by author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "buccaneers and buried gold". First published as a book in 1883, it was originally serialised in the children's magazine Young Folks between 1881-82 under the title The Sea Cook, or Treasure Island.
Traditionally considered a coming of age story, it is an adventure tale known for its superb atmosphere, character and action, and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of morality—as seen in Long John Silver—unusual for children's literature then and now. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels. The influence of Treasure Island on popular perception of pirates is vast, including treasure maps with an 'X', schooners, the Black Spot, tropical islands, and one-legged seamen with parrots on their shoulders.
Thursday, September 20, 2007
It was discovered in 1930. Its mass is much larger than Earth! which is surprising, considering that Earth is three times bigger. Even the moon is larger!!!!!
Pluto only has one moon - Charon. It was named after the character in Greek mythology who was a ferryman in the realm of Pluto. It was a happy coincidence for Jim Christy, its discoverer, that the name was so like that of his wife Charlene. Charon has a diameter of 1,186 Km (736 miles), more than half of Pluto.
Pluto is known to have a density just over twice that of water, indicating that it contains a rocky core. Its mantle is made, probably, of water and Methane. Its atmosphere probably consists of methane in a gaseous form, together with heavy gases such as nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide and oxygen.
Its surface temperature is around -216°C (-355°F).
Wednesday, August 29, 2007
Ronaldo — already earning an impressive £90,000 a week — has been value for money to say the least, scoring 25 goals in 27 appearances this season, looking set to beat the legendary George Best's tally of 32 in a single season — a record for a winger at United.
“With Ronaldo having scored 25 goals already there is the potential for him to score 30 this season, without question," mused Sir Alex. "He’s not that far off and has a strong chance.
“I’m not sure that he is capable of scoring 30 league goals, though. I think that is a different matter entirely.
“Achieving that would be more difficult and it’s a big ask — but if he does manage it, I’ll pay him more money!”
Ronaldo currently has 17 goals in the Premiership and indeed it would be a tough ask to get the remaining 13 goals in the 15 games left. Sir Alex won't put any money on it though — having lost a bet of a similar nature with the Portuguese ace last season.
He recalled: “I had a bet with him last season and I lost, so there was no bet this time around. I’m making sure I keep my money.“When this season started, people were asking whether Ronaldo could get 23 goals as he did last season. I said ‘why not?’ because the boy is such an exceptional talent
Tuesday, August 14, 2007
Main article: Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy literally means "heart muscle disease" (Myo= muscle, pathy= disease) It is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium (i.e., the actual heart muscle) for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death.
Extrinsic cardiomyopathies - cardiomyopathies where the primary pathology is outside the myocardium itself. Most cardiomyopathies are extrinsic, because by far the most common cause of a cardiomyopathy is ischemia. The World Health Organization calls these specific cardiomyopathies:
Coronary artery disease
Congenital heart disease - see below
Nutritional diseases affecting the heart
Ischemic (or ischaemic) cardiomyopathy
Valvular cardiomyopathy - see also Valvular heart disease below
Inflammatory cardiomyopathy - see also Inflammatory heart disease below
Cardiomyopathy secondary to a systemic metabolic disease
Intrinsic cardiomyopathies - weakness in the muscle of the heart that is not due to an identifiable external cause.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) - most common form, and one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In DCM the heart (especially the left ventricle) is enlarged and the pumping function is diminished.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM or HOCM) - genetic disorder caused by various mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. In HCM the heart muscle is thickened, which can obstruct blood flow and prevent the heart from functioning properly.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) - arises from an electrical disturbance of the heart in which heart muscle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. The right ventricle is generally most affected.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) - least common cardiomyopathy. The walls of the ventricles are stiff, but may not be thickened, and resist the normal filling of the heart with blood. ** Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy - the left ventricle wall has failed to properly grow from birth and such has a spongy appearance when viewed during an echocardiogram.
Main article: Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease is any of a number of specific diseases that affect the heart itself and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries leading to and from the heart. Research on disease dimorphism suggests that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect the heart muscle itself. Known or associated causes of cardiovascular disease include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypercholesterolemia.
Types of cardiovascular disease include:
Coronary heart disease
Main article: Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is a disease of the heart caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium. Angina pectoris and myocardial infarction (heart attack) are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease.
Ischaemic heart disease - another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to the organ.
Main article: Heart failure
Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure (or CHF), and congestive cardiac failure (CCF), is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body.
Cor pulmonale, a failure of the right side of the heart.
Hypertensive heart disease
Main article: Hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart disease, heart disease caused by high blood pressure, especially localised high blood pressure. Conditions that can be caused by hypertensive heart disease include:
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Coronary heart disease
(Congestive) heart failure
Tuesday, August 7, 2007
Monday, July 30, 2007
1. Pele 6. Eusebio
2. Cruyff 7. Best
3. Maradona 8. Platini
4. Puskas 9. Di Stefano
5. Beckenbauer 10. Zidane
1. Pelé (1956-1977)
Obviously not the most original of choices as greatest ever football player, but there is no denying Pelé’s pedigree. Edson Arantes do Nascimento (1940) made his debut in the Brazilian league at the age of 16, and promptly went on to become the league’s top scorer. His overwhelming debut earned him a place in Brazil’s 1958 World Cup squad, where Pelé and his team-mates ended up lifting the trophy. Pelé scored two goals in the final, as the world sat up and took notice. At age 17 Pele was (and is to this very day) the youngest ever World Cup winner. His impact on the 1962 and 1966 tournaments was negligible due to injuries, but at the 1970 World Cup Pelé once again shone resplendently. Playing in what many consider to be the greatest ever football team, Pelé was universally acknowledged as the world’s best player. His deft touch, dribbling skills and tremendous scoring ability, would see him notching up more than 500 league goals. In 1975 Pelé joined the North American Soccer League, where he became a goodwill ambassador for football. It’s a role he has been playing ever since.
2. Johan Cruyff (1964-1984)
Johan Cruyff (1947) was the star of the exciting 1974 Dutch "Total Football" World Cup team and the Ajax team that won a hat-trick of European Cups in the early Seventies. Three times European footballer of the year, he was by far the most naturally gifted European player of his generation, and probably of all time. His supreme technical skills, speed and acceleration, and his tactical insights made Cruyff virtually impossible to defend against. Wearing his trademark Nr.14 jersey, he usually played the centre forward position, but would often drop deep or move to the wing to confuse and draw out his markers. The tremendous tactical insight he had already displayed as a player, meant that Cruyff was one of the few players in this top 10 that would go on to become a world class coach. In 1992 his Barcelona side would win the first European Cup in the club's history, making Cruyff one of the few people to have won the prestigious trophy both as a coach and as a player.
3. Diego Maradona (1976-1997)
Diego Maradona (1960) won the 1986 World Cup almost single-handedly and took Argentina to the final four years later. He also took un fancied Napoli to its only two Italian titles. Maradona was controversially voted best player of all time in an internet poll held by FIFA, much to the chagrin of Pelé and his fans, who contended that an internet poll was bound to attract relatively young voters. People that would have seen Maradona play, but not Pelé. Truth be told, the title of greatest ever player was probably a bit too much credit. However, no one would surely deny Maradona was the best ever dribbler of the bal. He proved as much, when he scored what was arguably the greatest ever World Cup goal in 1986. Maradona picked up the ball on the halfway line and promptly proceeded to leave half the England team for dead before slotting the ball into the net. That game was also the one in which he scored his infamous 'Hand of God' goal. The incident soiled his reputation. All the more so, because he repeatedly refused to admit openly to handling the ball. In the nineties his career hit a downward trajectory.
4. Ferenc Puskas (1944-1966)
Ferenc Puskás (1927) was the outstanding player of the marvelous Hungarian national team of the early 1950s. In 1952 they had won Olympic Gold in Helsinki and the "Magical Magyars" arrived at the 1954 FIFA World Cup in Switzerland undefeated in four years. Their most resounding victory to date had been achieved the previous year when they were the first non-british team to defeat England at Wembley. In one of the great upsets of football history, Hungary were pipped at the post by Germany, with Puskas playing in spite of an injury picked up early on in the tournament. Puskas fled Hungary in the wake of the Soviet invasion of 1956 and went on to play for Real Madrid well into his 30's. At Madrid he teamed up with the likes of Di Stefano and Gento to win numerous trophies.
5. Franz Beckenbauer (1964-1984)
This list of top 10 greatest ever football players is heavily biased towards forwards, as all these kind of lists tend to be. We make no apologies for that as it is those players that bring joy to the crowds all over the world with their goals and artistry. However, this list would not be complete without Franz Beckenbauer (1945). Nicknamed ‘der Kaiser’, Beckenbauer was the mainstay of Bayern Munich’s triple European Cup winning team of the mid Seventies. He also captained his country to the 1974 World Cup, held in Germany. An elegant sweeper, Beckenbauer was known for his outstanding technique and tactical insight. As a manager, he steered the German national side towards their 1990 World Cup win in Italy.
6. Eusebio (1958-1978)
Eusébio da Silva Ferreira (1942) won 10 Portuguese league titles, plus the 1962 European Cup with Benfica, scoring two goals in the final. He virtually single-handedly took Portugal to third place in the 1966 World Cup, scoring nine goals. Eusebio's trademarks were his speed (he was the under-19 Portuguese champion of 400, 200 and 100 metre races), quick dribble and a powerful and accurate right-footed strike. Eusébio scored an incredible 727 goals in 715 matches wearing the Benfica jersey, and until recently was the all-time leading scorer for Portugal, with 41 goals in 64 matches.
7. George Best (1963-1984)
A superb dribbler of the ball, George Best (1946) was undoubtedly the most naturally gifted British player of his generation. A combination of lightning pace, perfect balance, and ability to produce goals with both feet, meant Best was a handful for even the best of defenders. Helping Man U win the European Cup in 1968 was his greatest achievement. That year Best was voted European Player of the Year. But in the years to follow Best the player would increasingly be eclipsed by Best the rock and roll celebrity, as problems with gambling, womanising and alcoholism overshadowed his achievements on the field. In 1974 Best left Manchester United, effectively ending his career at the highest level (although he would play on until 1984).
8. Michel Platini (1973-1987)
Three times European Footballer of the year, Michel Platini (1955) led France to two World Cup semi-finals and the 1984 European Championship title. Platini started at French club Nancy-Lorraine before moving on to Saint-Etienne, where he won the league title in 1981. In 1982 he moved to Italian club Juventus. One of the greatest passers of the ball in the history of the game, Platini was also a master of the free kick, a skill which he perfected using a row of dummies during training. Despite nominally being a midfielder, Platini displayed a remarkable goalscoring prowess. He scored 68 goals in 147 league games for Juventus, and was crowned top scorer of the Serie A no less than three times.
9. Alfredo di Stefano (1943-1966)
Alfredo di Stefano
Two-time European Footballer of the Year, Alfredo Di Stéfano (1926) led Real Madrid to five consecutive European Cups. Incredibly versatile, many believe he is the best all-around player in history. Di Stéfano was a powerful forward blessed with stamina, tactical versatility, and above all vision that allowed him to act as the conductor to Real's symphony of attacking football. Di Stéfano won numerous domestic league and cup titles with Real, but like George Best, he never graced a World Cup. He moved to Espanyol in 1964 and played there until hanging up his boots at the age of 40.
10. Zinedine Zidane (1988-2006)
Whether Zinedine Zidane (1972) or Michel Platini is the greatest ever French player is up for discussion. That Zidane belongs in this list of truly great players surely isn't. The outstanding player of his generation, he led France to World Cup glory in 1998 and to the European Championship in 2000. He was a superb passer of the ball first and foremost, an outstanding playmaker that fed his forwards with great passes. But Zidane could produce goals himself as well, most notably the winning goals in the 1998 World Cup Final and the 2002 Champion’s League Final. Zidane was named European Footballer of the Year in 1998, and FIFA World Footballer of the Year in 1998, 2000, and 2003.
Thursday, July 26, 2007
A simply stunning free-kick from Cristiano Ronaldo was the highlight of a dominant Manchester United performance at Old Trafford on Wednesday night.
The hosts controlled the game from start to finish and took the lead through Ronaldo on ten minutes.
A marvellous swerving free-kick doubled United's lead moments later as Portsmouth offered little in return.
Wednesday, July 18, 2007
The anonymous donation was made through the Saudi Arabia-based Islamic Development Bank, said senior finance ministry official Aminul Islam Bhuiyan, describing it as the single largest donation ever made by an individual to Bangladesh.
Bhuiyan said the donor could not be identified because of the bank's confidentiality rules. He said there was no special cyclone relief fund set up at the Islamic Development Bank.
"It's great news for the millions of cyclone-hit people," Bhuiyan said after meeting a team of bank officials visiting Bangladesh to discuss how the money would be spent.
Much of the money would go toward building about 500 schools and storm shelters, he said.
Tropical Cyclone Sidr struck Bangladesh's southwest coast on Nov. 15, leaving more than 3,300 people dead and tens of thousands homeless.
Bangladesh has sought $2 billion in foreign aid to rebuild homes, schools and embankments. It has received about $500 million, including the latest donation, officials said.
Sunday, July 15, 2007
Boxoffice comeback champ Sylvester Stallone has inked a lucrative deal to direct and star in two action films with "Rambo" producers Danny Dimbort,
Several scripts are being considered for follow-ups to his surprise hit sequels to "First Blood" and "Rocky." With Nu Image/Millennium's new Writers Guild of America interim deal speeding up the process, the first script is expected to be ready by the fall, with production set to begin shortly thereafter.
"The past year and a half of working with Avi, his partners Danny and Trevor and his film family has been nothing but a high point for me and my career and an extremely rewarding experience," Stallone said. "Avi is a real gentleman and a man of his word."
Stallone will produce the films with Kevin King-Templeton and Lerner. Dimbort, Short and Boaz Davidson will serve as executive producers.
It's a deal few would have expected just a few years ago, when Stallone followed up his role in "Spy Kids 3D: Game Over" with a failed network boxing reality TV series, "The Contender." But in 2006, Stallone wrote, directed and starred in "Rocky Balboa," the sixth "Rocky" film, 16 years after the previous sequel in the franchise. The MGM release grossed $70 million on an estimated $24 million budget.
The second part of Stallone's one-two punch came with the current release "Rambo," which he also stars in, wrote and directed. The film, distributed by Lionsgate, made $18.2 million in its opening weekend and earned an estimated $25 million in its first 10 days of release.
Saturday, June 30, 2007
A mummy is the body of a person (or an animal) that has been preserved after death. Normally when we die, bacteria and other germs eat away at the soft tissues (such as skin and muscles) leaving only the bones behind. Since bacteria need water in order to grow, mummification usually happens if the body dries out quickly after death. The body may then be so well preserved that we can even tell how the dead person may have looked in life.
Mummies are made naturally or by embalming, which is any process that people use to help preserve a dead body. Mummies can be dried out by extreme cold, by the sun, by smoke, or using chemicals such as natron. Some bodies become mummies because there were favorable natural conditions when they died. Others were preserved and buried with great care.
The ancient Egyptians believed that mummifying a person's body after death was essential to ensure a safe passage to the afterlife.
Friday, June 29, 2007
Banhine National Park, in AWF’s Limpopo Heartland, is home to a relic population of no fewer than ten pairs of wattled cranes. This population may form an important “missing link” between South Africa’s isolated population of wattled cranes and populations in other parts of the continent. AWF is working to identify
Key habitats currently being used by cranes for nesting and foraging in the park,
Human threats that constrain the expansion of the crane population and
Factors that influence fluctuations and distribution of crane populations.
This project will contribute to the revival of wildlife in Mozambique’s inland wetlands and will become the basis for sustainable ecotourism.
Monday, June 25, 2007
In the red corner we have Silvio Berlusconi and Adriano Galliani. In the blue corner are Massimo Moratti and Roberto Mancini. And in the middle is Ronaldinho, Brazilian footballing superstar, twice FIFA World Player of the Year and a fading idol currently sinking as fast as an unhappy, out-of-form fly in Frank Rijkaard's mid-morning cappuccino. Welcome to the one-city, two-club battle for to sign Ronaldinho - an event where no-one should be taken at face value and no words should be treated as gospel. Milan are known to be long-time admirers of Barcelona's unsettled 'fantasista', but the club's interest was generally thought to have dwindled in recent months, just like the form and commitment of the player himself. But then Inter signed a mammoth 10-year sponsorship deal with Nike, and the mischievous Roberto Mancini made his "nobody believed me when I talked about Ronaldinho" speech. Suddenly Milan were forced to prick up their ears again. (Or so we are led to believe.)Whether Inter are genuinely interested in Ronaldinho or not is beside the point. The Nerazzurri have left their neighbours in an extremely uncomfortable position by merely declaring their interest. After tracking the player for the last two years, can the Rossoneri just allow him to be snapped up from under their noses by their neighbours and biggest rivals?And, according to prominent Italian broadsheet the Corriere della Sera, it is Milan who are now favourites to sign the Barca star as they have allegedly agreed to allow him to have complete control over his image rights. "Not true," says Silvio Berlusconi. As always, the signing of Ronaldinho is a subject he's never been consistent on. He has openly voiced his admiration for the Barca playmaker for the last two years. Yet only a week ago the Milan president issued a clear statement of denial about his club’s interest in the player. "I don't think Ronaldinho represents a great objective for us," said the perma-tanned former PM, "we must keep an eye on the balance in the dressing room... his purchase is not a priority for Milan." But that was before Mancini stirred up this particular hornet's nest with his well-chosen press conference soundbites. So have Milan really taken Mancini's bait? It's difficult to say. But you have to ask yourself, why would the world and European champions want a player like Ronaldinho anyway? First of all, they have Kaka, who plays, more or less, in the same position that Ronaldinho occupies. Would Ancelotti ask Kaka to play out wide or drop deeper into midfield? Not a chance. Would he play the two of them behind a lone striker, probably Pato? It's a bit late in the day for Ancelotti to suddenly throw out a tactical approach that he has developed over many years and had so much success with, just so he can accommodate a potentially disruptive player whose best days may well be behind him. The mind wanders back to 2002 when the Rossoneri brought another former World Player of the Year to the San Siro from Barcelona. Rivaldo spent the majority of his one disastrous season at Milan keeping the bench warm. He didn't fit. He just wasn't a Milan kind of player.Neither is Ronaldinho. But it’s not Ancelotti who has the final say as to who is signed and who isn’t signed, as we discovered when it was revealed that Berlusconi vetoed the deals to bring Gianluigi Buffon and Luca Toni to the San Siro in the summer. But now, surely, the clubs' transfer targets lie elsewhere - with Gianluca Zambrotta, for example - and finding a replacement for the hapless, hopeless Dida. Thus even with £100 million to spend in the summer, it would be a surprise if Milan signed Ronaldinho. So what about Inter? Is the Nerazzuri's interest in getting Ronaldinho to sign on the dotted line genuine, or merely provocative? They certainly have more room to accommodate the player on the pitch, even with Luis Antonio Jiménez exceeding expectations playing in the hole behind Ibrahimovic and Cruz. And Ibrahimovic himself has given his approval to the idea. "Ronaldinho at Inter? Everyone would like to play with him,” the goal-bothering Swede told the Corriere dello Sport. But despite these comments and those of Mancini, Inter's president Massimo Moratti has attempted to pour cold water on the whole story. He reacted to the accusations made by Milan's chief executive Adriano Galliani, who claimed that he had been told of Inter's interest in Ronaldinho by Barcelona president Joan Laporta himself. "Galliani maybe knows more than I do, but it's not true," said the Inter president. "I don't know who has spoken to him, but at this time the information he has is not correct." In truth, it's impossible to know what is really going on beneath this curtain of double-speak, half-truths and Machiavellian double-bluffing. Maybe Inter are serious about signing Ronaldinho. Maybe they are just pulling their old sparring partner's leg. Maybe Milan will respond to Inter's noises. Maybe Inter are simply showing their fans that they have the financial muscle to compete with their nearest neighbours if they choose to do so. Whatever the reality of the situation, both clubs need to ask themselves just how effective the Brazilian shoe-shuffler is likely to be in Serie A in his current state of mind, anyway. If he's finding life tough in the defensively liberal world of the La Liga, how will he cope with the fierce shadowing of Italy's most uncompromising back lines? Has he even still got it in him to rise to such a daunting new challenge? Because, right now, Ronaldinho looks as if he'd like to spend more time on the bench - or the beach - and less on the training pitch. But before he unpacks his Bermuda shorts and lies back on the sun lounger, there is one other factor in this very complicated equation that hasn't been dealt with yet. Chelsea may yet have the final say in where Ronaldinho plays his football next season. According to the influential players' agent Enzo Bronzetti, Ronaldinho will definitely join up with his former Barca coach Henk ten Cate at Stamford Bridge in the summer. It is a rumour that Spanish sports daily Marca has been talking up for some time and it makes more sense than the ones that see him going to either of the Milan giants. Roman Abramovich is rich enough - and perhaps naive enough - to take a gamble on such a global superstar, regardless of whether his powers are on the wane. So for all the noise currently emanating from the city of Milan, London could well be the place you are most likely to find Ronaldinho playing his football next season. Then again, he could always stay with Barcelona. Gil GillespieWhat do you think? Are Milan and Inter serious about bringing the Brazilian superstar to Italy? Or are they both bluffing, waiting for each other to blink? Where do you think Ronaldinho will be playing in 2008/09?